The Most Common Signs of Gluten Intolerance

In recent years, gluten intolerance has become a widely recognized health concern, with more and more people seeking to understand its symptoms and implications. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, and their derivatives. For individuals with gluten intolerance, consuming gluten-containing foods can lead to a range of uncomfortable and sometimes severe symptoms. In this article, we will explore the most common signs of gluten intolerance, shedding light on this condition and its impact on those affected.

What is gluten intolerance?

Gluten intolerance, also known as non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), is distinct from celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten consumption. Unlike celiac disease, which can cause severe damage to the small intestine, NCGS does not involve the same degree of intestinal damage or antibody production. However, it can still result in significant discomfort and negatively affect an individual’s quality of life.

What causes gluten intolerance?

The precise origins of gluten intolerance remain unclear. According to some studies, individuals may not exhibit sensitivity to gluten per se but, rather, to a specific carbohydrate commonly present in various foods. In these cases, their bodies fail to absorb this carbohydrate properly, leading to its retention in the digestive system and subsequent fermentation, resulting in illness.

On the other hand, alternative research proposes that what might impact the intestinal lining of certain individuals. Typically, this lining serves as a barrier to prevent bacteria from escaping the intestines. However, in those with gluten intolerance, this lining may not function as intended, potentially allowing bacteria to enter the bloodstream or liver, ultimately leading to inflammation.

Common Signs and Symptoms

The symptoms of gluten intolerance can vary widely from person to person and may overlap with those of other gastrointestinal disorders. Here are the most common signs associated with gluten intolerance:

1. Gastrointestinal Distress

  • Abdominal Pain: Many individuals with gluten intolerance experience recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort after consuming gluten-containing foods. This pain can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by bloating and a sensation of fullness.
  • Diarrhea or Constipation: Unexplained episodes of diarrhea or chronic constipation are frequent complaints among those with gluten intolerance. These digestive issues can be disruptive to daily life.
  • Nausea and Vomiting: Some people with NCGS may experience bouts of nausea and occasional vomiting, especially after consuming gluten.

2. Fatigue and Malaise

  • Chronic Fatigue: Persistent fatigue is a common symptom of gluten intolerance. Individuals may feel tired and lacking in energy, even after getting adequate rest.
  • Brain Fog: “Brain fog” refers to a feeling of mental cloudiness, difficulty concentrating, and memory problems. Some individuals with NCGS report experiencing this symptom.

3. Headaches and Migraines

  • Frequent Headaches: Gluten intolerance can trigger recurrent headaches in some individuals. These headaches can range from mild to severe and may be accompanied by sensitivity to light and noise.

4. Skin Issues

  • Dermatitis Herpetiformis: This is a specific skin condition associated with gluten intolerance. It presents as a blistering, itchy rash that often appears on the elbows, knees, buttocks, and scalp.
  • Eczema and Psoriasis: Some individuals with NCGS may experience or exacerbate existing skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis.

5. Joint Pain and Muscle Aches

  • Joint Pain: Gluten intolerance can lead to joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation, resembling symptoms of arthritis.
  • Muscle Aches: Unexplained muscle pain and cramps are reported by some individuals with NCGS.

6. Mood Disorders

  • Depression and Anxiety: Gluten intolerance can affect mood, leading to symptoms of depression and anxiety in some individuals.

7. Respiratory Symptoms

  • Wheezing and Shortness of Breath: Some people with gluten intolerance may experience respiratory symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath, which can mimic asthma.

8. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

  • Iron-Deficiency Anemia: Prolonged gluten intolerance can lead to malabsorption of essential nutrients, including iron, resulting in anemia.

The Challenge of Diagnosis

Diagnosing gluten intolerance can be challenging because there is no specific test to confirm the condition. Celiac disease and wheat allergy must rule out first through blood tests and other diagnostic procedures. Once these conditions are excluded, healthcare providers often rely on a process of exclusion to diagnose gluten intolerance. This involves monitoring symptoms and observing whether they improve on a gluten-free diet.

Gluten Intolerance vs. Celiac Disease

It’s essential to differentiate between gluten intolerance and celiac disease, as the two conditions have distinct characteristics:

  • Celiac Disease: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by severe intestinal damage triggered by the consumption of gluten. It is diagnose through blood tests and confirmed via a biopsy of the small intestine. People with celiac disease must strictly adhere to a gluten-free diet to prevent complications.
  • Gluten Intolerance (NCGS): Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a less severe condition that does not involve the same degree of intestinal damage as celiac disease. Diagnosis is primarily based on the exclusion of celiac disease and wheat allergy, as well as the improvement of symptoms on a gluten-free diet. Individuals with NCGS can usually tolerate small amounts of gluten without experiencing severe reactions.

Managing Gluten Intolerance

If you suspect you have gluten intolerance, it’s essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and diagnosis. If NCGS is confirmed, the primary treatment is adopting a gluten-free diet. This means avoiding all sources of gluten, including wheat, barley, rye, and foods made from these grains.

Following a gluten-free diet can pose a challenge because many common foods and ingredients contain gluten. It requires careful reading of food labels and may involve cooking more meals from scratch. Fortunately, as awareness of gluten intolerance has grown, gluten-free food options and recipes have become more accessible.


Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), commonly known as gluten intolerance, causes a range of symptoms when individuals consume gluten-containing foods. While it is not as severe as celiac disease, NCGS can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life. Recognizing the signs and symptoms of gluten intolerance is the first step toward diagnosis and management.

If you suspect you have gluten intolerance, it’s crucial to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and guidance. A gluten-free diet is the primary treatment for NCGS, and with the right support and resources, individuals with this condition can effectively manage their symptoms and enjoy improved well-being.